Step 1 Study Topics: Risk Factors


This page is dedicated to compiling Step 1 study notes for the topic of risk factors. This page is likely disorganized as it was made in haste.


Generally listed in order of highest to lowest significance: 

Pancreatic cancer:

  1. Age: highest incidence is ages 65-75
  2. Smoking: most important environmental risk factor for pancreatic cancer 
  3. Diabetes mellitus: the longer the illness duration, the greater the risk
  4. Chronic pancreatitis: the risk of cancer increases with the disease. 
  5. Genetic predisposition: MEN syndromes, etc. 

Gastric cancer (Intestinal):

  1. H. pylori infection 
  2. Dietary nitrosamines (smoked foods)
  3. Tobacco smoking 
  4. Achorhydia
  5. Chronic gastritis 

Cervical Cancer:

  1. HPV infection: high risk strains are 16,18,31
    • Things that increase HPV transmission are by proxy risk factors (i.e. lack of barrier contraceptive usage). 

Ovarian Cancer:

  1. Family history 
  2. Infertility Nulliparity 
  3. Polycystic ovarian syndorme 
  4. Endometriosis 
  5. BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations 
  6. Lynch syndorme 
  7. Postmenopausal hormone syndrome 

Ovarian Cancer (protective):

  • Combined oral contraceptives 
  • Multiparity
  • Breastfeeding
  • Sapling-oophorectomy 

Peptic ulcer:


  • Smoking 


  • Cocaine use


  • Ethnicity: african americans 
  • Sex: females 


  • Primary hyperparathyroidism: causes hypercalciuria
  • Crohn disease: hyperoxaluria 
  • Distal renal tubular acidosis: hypocitraturia 
  • Gout: hyperuricosuria 
  • Low fluid intake: dehydration (decreases solubility all around)
  • Diet:
    • Low calcium 
    • High oxalate (too much spinach/rhubarb)
    • High protein
    • High sodium
    • High fructose


  • Past suicide attempt: by far the largest risk factor for this. 
  • Access to firearms 
  • Elderly white men 


Page Updated: 04.15.2017